Thermowell Selection Basics

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Thermowells are available for light duty applications, high pressures, high temperatures and high velocity applications. They are used to meet many general service industry needs and are selected on the basis of pressure, temperature, flow, vibration and corrosion parameters. The basic thermowell types include: threaded, socket weld, weld in, flanged, sanitary and van stone. The threaded type is generally the least costly and most versatile. The schematic of a typical thermowell and all parts required to specify a thermowell for proper selection is shown below:

How to Size a Control Valve for Liquid and Gas Applications Using a Selection Chart

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Control valve sizing is big business. Often there is a thin line between getting it right or wrong with unintended consequences for the process where the control valve is applied. Typically these days, most control valve sizing is done via software supplied by valve manufacturers. However, here the sizing chart presented is a guide for quickly selecting the type of valve required for general-purpose applications before getting down to the nitty-gritty of using a sizing software.  As you examine this selection chart, please be reminded that there are so many special circumstances applicable to many control valve applications that the guide provided here be considered as a very approximate first level guide only.
Before using this chart, make sure you understand the terms, P1, P2 and T1 as defined in the schematic for a control valve in a process shown below:

How to Specify an Orifice Plate

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Orifice plates are commonly used in flow measurement applications. After prolonged use, there may be need to order a new orifice plate to replace the one in service. In most industrial applications for large flow measurement, the orifice plate is often contained in a dual orifice chamber fitting and is usually replaced online in these types of fittings. In flange types, the orifice plate is sandwiched between flanges. The main reason for replacing an orifice plate is often due to deterioration and corrosion in service. Therefore to order a new orifice plate, the following specification checklist tabulated below should be handy so that mistakes are not made in the ordering process:
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