Operating principle of Nuclear Level Sensors

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Nuclear based level measurement sensors can be used for point as well as continuous level measurement applications.  The concept of nuclear level sensors is based on the fact that certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrate the walls of industrial vessels, but is attenuated by travelling through the bulk of material stored within those vessels. By placing a radioactive source on one side of the vessel and measuring the radiation making it through to the other side of the vessel, an approximate indication of level within that vessel may be obtained. Other types of nuclear radiation are scattered by process material in vessels, which means the level of process material may be sensed by sending radiation into the vessel through one wall and measuring backscattered radiation returning through the same wall.

In a typical industrial nuclear level measurement sensor shown below

Operating Principle of Guided Wave Radar Level Measurement Probes

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As already discussed in operating principle of non-contact radar level sensors/gauges, radar level measurement can be done using: guided and unguarded radar waves. We have already covered unguided or non-contacting radar level measurement. Here the focus is on the operating principle of guided wave radar level measurement applications.

Guided wave radar (GWR) is also called time domain reflectometry (TDR) or micro-impulse radar (MIR). In guided wave radar installations, the guided wave radar sensor/gauge is mounted on the top of a tank or chamber, and the probe usually extends to the full depth of the vessel where level measurement is required. A typical guided wave radar installation in a vessel is shown below:

How to Determine Thermocouple Accuracy with Initial Calibration Tolerances

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Thermocouple accuracy is the amount of error which exists in its temperature measurement. It indicates how close the measured temperature value of a given thermocouple is close to the true temperature value. It is called the tolerance or error. A table called the “Initial Calibration Tolerances” tells us what accuracy or tolerance we can expect from a given thermocouple.
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