Basics of AC Motor Service Factor (S.F) Rating

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The service factor (SF) of an AC motor  is a measure of continuous overload capacity at which a motor can operate without overload or damage, provided the other design parameters such as rated voltage, frequency and ambient temperature are within the manufacturers’ specifications.

Motor service factor is crucial in determining the overload capacity of any given motor. The maximum load an AC motor can carry without overheating or otherwise damaging the motor if rated voltage and frequency are supplied at the motor’s leads is given by:

How to Determine Electric Motor Overloaded Using Horsepower Rating

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The electrical power supplied to an electric motor is converted into mechanical power for powering various loads such as pumps. The power output can be rated in KW (kilowatts)  or Horsepower (HP). In the United States, the mechanical output of the electric motor is rated in HP while elsewhere, it is in KW.
Note that:
1HP = 746W = 0.746KW
1KW = 1/0.746*HP = 1.34HP

Electric Motor Horsepower (HP)
Electric motor horsepower is dependant on speed and torque. When torque

Basics of Permanent Pressure loss in Differential Pressure Flow Meters

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The standard primary flow sensors commonly used in differential pressure flow meters are the orifice plates, flow nozzles and venturi tubes. These flow meters are often called "head loss" meters because there is a permanent pressure loss downstream these meters. In otherwords, upstream pressure never recovers to its original value downstream these meters. Various designs of these flow sensors are available which can provide the optimal meter for the desired operating conditions and requirements of the user. A critical factor in choosing a differential pressure flow meter is the pressure loss of the flow sensor. As a rule, when applying differential pressure devices, pressure loss must be small. This is because pressure loss means energy loss and higher pumping/compression costs.

The different installation versions of the primary flow sensors (orifice plates, flow nozzles, venturis) of differential pressure flow meters commonly used in flow measurement are tabulated below:
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