How a Vibrating Fork Level Switch Works

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Vibration fork switches are only suitable for point level measurement. They consist of an oscillating or tuning fork, which resonate in air with a known natural frequency. The resonance frequency will be reduced when the fork is brought into contact with a medium. The diagram below shows tuning fork type level switches used for point level measurement:

AGA 3 Gas Flow Equation for Orifice Plates

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Recall that we have discussed the ISO 5167 Orifice Meter Equation. While some companies use the ISO 5167 orifice gas flow equation, a vast majority of companies use the American Gas Association committee report 3 gas flow equation otherwise referred to as AGA 3 Gas Flow Equation for Orifice Plates. The flow rate computed by this equation is in standard units i.e Standard Cubic Feet per Hour or SCFH.

Any equation computing flow in standard units must predict the effective expansion of the gas as if

Operating principle of Nuclear Level Sensors

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Nuclear based level measurement sensors can be used for point as well as continuous level measurement applications.  The concept of nuclear level sensors is based on the fact that certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrate the walls of industrial vessels, but is attenuated by travelling through the bulk of material stored within those vessels. By placing a radioactive source on one side of the vessel and measuring the radiation making it through to the other side of the vessel, an approximate indication of level within that vessel may be obtained. Other types of nuclear radiation are scattered by process material in vessels, which means the level of process material may be sensed by sending radiation into the vessel through one wall and measuring backscattered radiation returning through the same wall.

In a typical industrial nuclear level measurement sensor shown below
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